Colorectal surgery refers to procedures involving the repair of damage to the colon, rectum, anus and pelvic floor. These are often a result of diseases of the lower digestive tract, such as cancer, diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Minimally invasive alternatives to surgery involving endoscopy and colonoscopy are also offered as outpatient treatment.
Upper GI endoscopy examines the lining of the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum by passing a small, endoscope through the mouth into the stomach. To screen for colorectal cancer and look for bleeding or noncancerous growths like polyps, a flexible sigmoidoscopy is performed using a fibre-optic camera to examine the rectum, sigmoid and colon. Another common procedure is a colonoscopy which is used to diagnose colon and rectal problems, perform biopsies and remove noncancerous growths – a long flexible colonoscope is inserted through the rectum and allows the physician to examine the lining of the rectum and colon.